Pharmacy Contributions to Nutrition and Dietary Supplements in Lembata

Pharmacies play a pivotal role in promoting health and wellness through their contributions to nutrition and dietary supplements in Lembata. Situated at the intersection of medicine and community health, pharmacies serve as trusted sources of information and products that support dietary needs and overall well-being.

Pafikablembata, where access to diverse dietary options and nutritional education may vary, pharmacies provide essential support by offering a range of dietary supplements. These supplements are designed to complement daily nutrition, filling gaps that may arise due to dietary restrictions, lifestyle choices, or specific health conditions. Pharmacists, equipped with knowledge in pharmacology and nutrition, are valuable resources for personalized advice on selecting appropriate supplements tailored to individual needs.

Beyond mere product dispensation, pharmacies actively engage in educating the community about nutritional health. Through workshops, informational pamphlets, and one-on-one consultations, pharmacists empower individuals to make informed decisions about their dietary habits. This educational outreach is particularly crucial in regions like Lembata, where traditional dietary practices may benefit from supplementation to meet modern nutritional standards.

Pharmacies also contribute to the local economy by stocking dietary supplements sourced from reputable manufacturers. By ensuring the quality and authenticity of these products, pharmacies build trust within the community, encouraging regular patrons to prioritize their health through reliable supplement choices. This commitment to quality extends to ensuring that supplements comply with national regulations, thereby safeguarding consumer health.

In emergencies or times of crisis, pharmacies in Lembata become lifelines, providing essential nutrients and supplements that may be scarce due to logistical challenges. Whether during natural disasters or health emergencies, pharmacies act swiftly to meet community needs, demonstrating their role as pillars of support in times of adversity.

Moreover, pharmacies serve as hubs for innovation in nutritional health. They collaborate with healthcare providers and nutritionists to stay updated on the latest research and developments in dietary supplementation. This collaboration fosters a dynamic environment where evidence-based practices and emerging trends can be integrated into community health initiatives.

In rural areas like Lembata, where access to specialized healthcare services may be limited, pharmacies serve as primary points of contact for health-related inquiries. Pharmacists, trained to recognize the interactions between medications and supplements, offer valuable guidance to individuals managing chronic conditions or undergoing treatment regimes.

To enhance their impact, pharmacies in Lembata can further invest in community outreach programs focused on nutrition and wellness. By partnering with local organizations and educational institutions, pharmacies can expand their reach and promote holistic approaches to health that encompass both traditional wisdom and modern nutritional science.

In conclusion, Pafikablembata are integral to promoting nutrition and dietary supplements within the community. Through their expertise, product offerings, educational initiatives, and commitment to quality, pharmacies empower individuals to prioritize their health and well-being. By continuing to evolve and innovate in the field of nutritional health, pharmacies can further enhance their contributions to public health and community resilience.

How to Open an SIP Account

Systematic Investment Plan or SIP means a method of investing money in mutual funds.

In an SIP, one invests a fixed amount of money in a mutual fund every month. which is automatically deducted from one’s bank account. To know what amount of monthly SIP you need to invest to achieve a certain money goal, one can use SIP account calculator. A Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) calculator is an online financial mechanism that helps to calculate the potential returns on your SIP investments. The online SIP account calculator tells you how much money should be invested every month to for a target corpus.

A systematic investment plan (SIP) means a plan that gives investors the right to make regular, equal payments into a mutual fund of their choice.

To open an SIP account, the investor should hold an investment account with the fund house. She/he needs to complete KYC verification before operating the SIP account. Once the investor has completed the KYC verification, she/he can open her/his SIP account within the investment account by filling up the ‘Start/Initiate an SIP’ form.

Step 1: Collect necessary documents

The following documents are necessary for KYC registration: PAN card, address proof like driving license/bank statement/utility bill, a passport size photograph, and cheque for the bank details.

Step 2: Be KYC compliant

Any AMC website or RTA website which provides KYC facility can validate KYC. The investor also has to complete FATCA formalities by answering certain questions online.

Step 3: Register with the AMC website

After completing the KYC formalities from the website of the fund house (AMC), she/he should click on the ‘Register Now’ or a ‘New Investor’ tab provided on the website; the investor furnishes the PAN number, personal details, nominee details, bank details and answer few FATCA questions. Then a User Id and password is generated for transacting online.

Step 4: Scheme Plan and Investment Amount

The investor chooses the scheme along with the plan and option and decided the SIP amount. Investors can select either regular plans or direct plans and can go for either growth option, IDCW option.

If the investor is certain of the SIP amount that she/he is going to make, then he or she can fill up the investment amount in the given box without using the online SIP calculator.

Step 5: Payment Mode and Date

Once the investor has decided the kind of SIP investment, he/she has to selects date/s and pay the first SIP instalment. The investor decides on the mode of payment; the amount can be auto debited from the investor’s account, net banking or NEFT/ RTGS payment.

Step 6: Submit Transaction

After completing details online, it is submitted to the AMC. The AMC sends acknowledges via email and SMS.

The investor can login to his account to check the status of investments etc.

An active SIP account inculcates a sense of financial discipline over time as you are forced to invest a fixed sum at regular intervals.

Different Types of Debt Funds

Debt funds in mutual funds invest in fixed-income securities like treasury bills, corporate bonds, commercial papers, government securities, and many other money market instruments. The NAV or Net Asset Value of Debt Mutual Funds is inversely related to interest rate movement. Generally, when the interest rates rise, the prices of existing fixed income securities in your debt mutual fund portfolio fall and when interest rates drop, such prices increase.

Types of Debt Funds in India

Dynamic Bond Funds
Dynamic Bond Fund is a type of debt fund where the fund manager adjusts the portfolio as per the fluctuating interest rates. Dynamic bond funds have different average maturity periods as these funds take investment decisions based on interest rates and invest in instruments of longer and as well as shorter maturities.

Short Duration Debt Funds
These type of debt funds make investments in Debt & Money Market instruments such that the Macaulay duration of the portfolio is between 1 year – 3 years.. Conservative investors prefer these funds, as they are generally not influenced much by interest rate movements.

Liquid Funds
Liquid funds is a type of debt fund consisting of underlying debt instruments with a maturity of not more than 91 days. This makes them relatively less risky. Liquid funds can be an option to park investor’s surplus fund and can act as emergency funds.

Gilt Funds
These type of Debt funds make minimum investment in Gsecs- 80% of total assets (across maturity) and considered to have low credit risk. . The government rarely defaults on the loan taken in the form of debt instruments; gilt funds are perfect for risk-averse fixed-income investors.

Fixed Maturity Plans
These types of Debt funds also make investments in fixed income securities like corporate bonds and government securities. All FMPs have a fixed period for which your money will be locked-in. However, one can invest only during the initial offer period there after can be purchased or sold through stock exchange platform.

From an investor’s point of view, debt funds in India are regarded as relatively less volatile than equity mutual funds.. However, there are different types of risks associated with debt funds.

Credit Risk

Debt funds extend money to companies, banks, and the government. The possibility of loss because of a company defaulting on payment is called credit risk. Banks and the government have a safer credit profile than companies. Certain mutual funds hoping to generate higher returns lend to companies with low credit profiles, which leads to such events. Hence, one should examine the debt fund portfolio before investing.

Liquidity Risk

Certain securities have less liquidity as compared to others or there could be economic issues wherein the liquidity of debt securities decreases. In such cases, the mutual funds cannot sell these securities and repay investors. This is known as liquidity risk.

Interest Rate Risk

This is one of the most common risks involved in debt funds. Increasing interest rates lead to falling bond prices and vice versa. In a falling interest rate environment with rising bond prices, funds with the highest duration do well. If a fund manager, buys bonds with a long duration assuming interest rates will go down, but interest rates go up such a fund will yield low or negative returns. This is an interest rate risk.

To conclude, there are different types of risks associated with debt funds.

The investor should maintain debt funds in mutual funds as a part of the portfolio after evaluating the risks involved and your investment objective.

Why Should Investors Start an SIP Account?

Systematic Investment Plan or SIP account means a method of investing money in mutual funds.

In an SIP, one invests a fixed amount of money in a mutual fund every month. which is automatically deducted from one’s bank account. To know what amount of monthly SIP you need to invest to achieve a certain monetary goal, one can use an SIP account calculator. A Systematic Investment Plan (SIP) calculator is an online financial mechanism that helps one calculate the potential returns a person can earn on your SIP investments. The online SIP calculator tells how much money should be invested every month to for a target corpus.

A systematic investment plan (SIP) means a plan where investors set aside regular, equal payments into a mutual fund.

To open an SIP account, the investor should hold an investment account with the fund house. She/he needs to complete KYC verification before operating the SIP account. Once the investor has completed the KYC verification, she/he can open her/his SIP account within the investment account by filling up the ‘Start/Initiate an SIP’ form.

Why should investors open an SIP Account?

No need to track the market New investors are generally unsure of the market. In case of lumpsum investments one loses a large amount if the market crashes. Conversely, one stands to gain if the market rises. With an SIP, the amount is staggered over a period of time, and only a certain portion of the investment will face market instability. However, one should note that investing in SIP are subject to market risk and do not assure a profit or returns or protection against a loss in a downturn market.
Adjust SIP amounts
SIPs are flexible. For instance, if you start a Rs. 500 SIP in a mutual fund scheme it is not necessary to invest the same amount every month. If one’s savings increase in the future, you can increase the SIP amount or even start a new SIP in the same mutual fund scheme or any other scheme. You can miss paying the SIP for a few months or even stop the investment as per your choice.

Rupee cost averaging
When the market falls, the investor can buy more units. Similarly, investor will buy fewer units when the stock markets rise. This reduces the per-unit cost of purchasing the units. This is called rupee cost averaging.

Habit of investing
If an investor decides to invest through an SIP, this entails putting aside a fixed amount periodically. This inculcates financial discipline.

Suitable for new investors
An investor, who has just started her /his career, can use an SIP account to enter the world of investing. This way, she/he understands equities with a nominal amount. Later, one can invest in riskier equity schemes according to one’s investment needs and risk appetite.

An active SIP account inculcates a sense of financial discipline over time as you are forced to invest a fixed sum at regular intervals.

The Yellow Brick Road of Financial Advice

1. Calculate your net worth Take the market value of all your significant assets including houses, investments, vehicles,/cash savings,/and subtract what you owe on your mortgage, credit cards, LOC, student loans, vehicle loans, etc. Focus on the big-ticket items…. you can ignore the $50 you have stowed away in your sock drawer! Whatever is left over, whether positive or negative, is your net worth. This is the starting point and yardstick for measuring your financial progress. Going forward, you will need to revisit this calculation on a regular basis to determine your progress. 2. Pay yourself first – and save it!/ You should be aiming to save at least 10% of your after-tax salary. Every payday, that 10% has to get from the daily chequing account where your salary is deposited to a high-interest savings account… like clockwork with no ifs, ands or buts!/How to invest that money is another lesson, but for now, just get a system in place to make ensure you put it aside — money left in a chequing account has a way of disappearing! Overcome your forgetfulness and/or temptation and make that money invisible by setting up an automatic/transfer/to a designated savings account every payday. If you are struggling to meet the 10% goal, you need to list up your monthly expenses and find some low-hanging fruit you can cut and divert into savings./ Dining out, travel, phone/internet/cable plans and gym memberships can add up quickly and are good areas to carve out some savings. 3. Understand where your money is going The top two overspends for Canadians are housing and transportation. The cost of your car is not just the monthly payment! You must include the insurance, gas and/repairs – and it shouldn’t eat up much more than 10% of your after-tax income. Do the same calculation with your housing and make sure to include the mortgage, repairs, utilities and property tax. Aim for a maximum of 30% of after-tax income, not whatever the bank or mortgage stress-test says you can afford. If you find you are way over the 10% target for your car you can easily downgrade, but a change in housing is much more involved. There are numerous fees and related costs to factor in, not to mention the fact that it may be difficult to find a cheaper housing option in your area. We recommend doing the calculation and at least get a benchmark of your current situation. You may be able to save on utilities, repairs or home improvements, or even try and generate some extra income to get closer to the 30% target. 4. Prioritize your debts and create a repayment plan Not all debts are created equal, some cost a lot more than others! If you carry a credit card debt from month-to-month or graduated years ago and are still trying to pay off your student loan, you need to create a repayment plan and stick to it. The interest rate on credit cards assures that paying the minimum every month will only enrichen the card company and cost you thousands in interest charges. Student loans also carry higher interest rates and can handicap your post-graduation financial life for years. We appreciate the value of education but find that many students are not very cognizant of the loan details and just how much the interest rate and payments will be post graduation. Only borrow what is absolutely necessary to get you through your education and don’t bank on a big post-graduation paycheque to quickly reduce that student loan – it may not happen for a few years! A few good books and/or a money coach would be a great addition to building your financial education but learning how to master the above basics won’t take much of your time and give you a solid start to a successful financial life.

Financial Stepney – A positive catalyst to your emotions

Fallback or Plan B has not been welcomed positively when it comes to following a passion, as few believe it fails to bring out the full potential in any situation. However, businessmen, sportsmen, or any team player always believed in having a Plan B.

We at S9 Financial Planners, have a similar way to explain the concept of financial backup or also known as contingency or emergency funds which according to us is a must-have portion in any individual’s personal finance portfolio for unprecedented times. We like to call it “Financial Stepney”

We have all gone through one such unexpected and uncertain period in 2020. Due to this unforeseen Pandemic, everything was shut, businesses were down and job losses were at their peak. Even the stock market was highly bearish at that point in time.

Obstacles in having Financial Stepney or emergency funds
We have noticed two kinds of habits that mostly cause obstacles, whenever we have asked clients to have their financial Stepney in place.

Lack of Planning: Just like when a journey is planned, one is too focused or excited on routes and stopovers that the alternatives of things going wrong are not taken into consideration all the time. Similarly, when we plan for our financial goals we are so much into achieving them that we lack in planning our contingencies. Whereas, as a financial planners& investment advisors, we strongly recommend having our risk-managed. Planning ahead of time and taking “things to go south” outcomes into consideration in such scenarios is very important.

Last on Priority: In our priority list, the emergency fund is always at the bottom when we all are well aware that trouble never knocks before coming. Most of us tend to have this attitude that this is not something that needs attention right now, and then we regret not having it the most.

Why do we need a Financial Stepney?
During this lockdown, we observed that many businessmen and the working class redeemed almost all their investment and savings which were actually kept for achieving their short-term and long-term goals. This led to the real financial crunch and no Plan B to rely on. We have also evidently noticed when financial goals are not achieved as planned or dreamt, one invites emotional chaos. None of us want any of this stress or disturbance in our lives.

There is a brighter side to this thing. The one who had their contingency plan or financial Stepney in place was able to stick to their goals and keep their investment as it is. Redeeming emergency funds that were parked in their portfolio was the right move in such a scenario. Financial Stepney here can act as a positive catalyst for our emotions.

The importance of having a Financial Stepney or emergency funds in your financial plan is something I wanted to throw light on, but it is necessary to know how to create one?

How to create Financial Stepney or Emergency funds?
Here are the basic things to remember when you create your Financial Stepney.

Financial Stepney is not a short-term process.
You should aim to have emergency funds that are equal to or near to 6-9 months of your salary or profit amount.
Funds parked as emergency funds should be only used in emergencies and not on things that are not in the plan or for splurging. It is not the excess amount.
Park a part of your bonus or other passive income as a Financial Stepney.
Make sure that your emergency funds have easy liquidity so that you can actually use them at the time of emergencies. For clarification, Investment in buying a house cannot be called an emergency fund, because we need to know that one cannot sell a part of the kitchen or bedroom in exchange for funds. Liquidity is of paramount importance.
Lastly, think of Financial Stepney as ‘Plan B’ – it’s a realization and acceptance of the fact that no one can predict what is in store for us in the future. However, with a Stepney, even after a small interruption we have the power to drive back on track.

What is a Financial Planner for Investment?

Depending on your needs, a planner may be a broker, an insurance agent, or an accountant. Many of these professionals also offer investment management services. A Financial Planning for Investors license is not required. You can find a Financial Planner for Investing in your area of residence by researching your state’s rules and regulations.

A Financial Planner for Investment will review your existing portfolio and make recommendations on how you can optimise it. He or she will also help you diversify your investments and assess your risk tolerance and goals. He or she will also help you invest in an investment fund. This can be a great way to achieve financial security. A Financial Planner for Investors is a great choice if you are looking for a new way to grow your money!

A Financial Planner for Investment will also ask you questions about your personal risk profile and recommend different types of investment to suit your needs and preferences. While the financial industry is heavily regulated by the Australian Securities and Investment Commission (ASIC), property promoters are not required to disclose the economic factors that can affect your property investment. Rather, a Financial Planner for an Investor will ask you a series of risk-profile questions that will help him or her choose the most appropriate investment options for you.

A Financial Planner for Investment can help you identify your risk profile and determine the best investment options for you. They can also audit your current portfolio and recommend strategies to help you maximize your returns. In addition, they can help you determine your risk tolerance and help you diversify your portfolio. A Financial Planner for Investment can be a great asset in your financial future. If you’re thinking of hiring one, it’s important to remember that a financial planner is not just a high-powered professional who makes recommendations.

A Financial Planner for Investment is a professional who can give you sound advice about the right type of investment for you. A financial planner can help you to identify your goals and objectives, and then help you to make the best choices for your unique circumstances. A financial planner melbourne will help you to set realistic financial goals and take control of your finances. These are essential steps that a financial planner should take to create your future. So, do not wait any longer: hire a Financial Planner for Investment today and begin making progress towards the life you’ve always wanted.

Investing requires careful consideration of your age, risk appetite, and the amount you are willing to invest. A financial planner will be able to assess your risk tolerance and recommend investments that will help you achieve your objectives. A good Financial Planner for Investment will help you understand your goals and then choose the best investments to meet them.

How to Start Forex Trading in 7 simple Steps

Online forex trading, and the large numbers of forex brokers who make their services available online, have made trading a distinct possibility for hopefuls. Whether you are from the financial field or not, you do get a full fair chance at trying out your luck with forex. The entry requirements are not too hard. start forex trading in 7 simple steps!

Looking for a good Forex broker
A good forex broker will have the following attributes:

The firm would be regulated and licensed as per a noted regulatory body, apart from conforming to the local laws;
Provides clients with a demo account;
Types of account compatible with trader types;
Good customer support;
Comfortable deposits and withdrawals.
Making sense of trading capital:start forex trading
If you have to start trading right away, you can start with $100. Given a bit more flexibility, $500 can result in higher returns. Nonetheless, $5000 might be best since it can give you the basis from which to produce a reasonable income. This will compensate you for the time you are spending trading.

The best approach to understanding the minimum capital outlay required is to have a good idea of risk management.

Needless to add, it becomes important for you to make sense of how forex trades are made to have more insight.

Clear risk management policy :start forex trading
Trading is about trading on price changes. The mass of the risk is in the form of prices not moving the way you foresaw them going. Given its all-too-frequent incidence, traders ought not to risk more than 1% of their forex account on one trade.

Margin trading and leveraged trading take place when you use debt types trade funding. Both activity types majorly increase the amount of risk you take on. They increase the possibility of owning more than you did at the start.

Trade risk, as regards the money you risk in one trade, is the amount of capital that could be lost. It is arrived at by finding the difference between your entry price and the price at which your stop-loss order goes into effect, multiplied by pip value and position size.

It’s true that you may use leverage to fund your trades. However, the risks are so high that the best way to get past them is not to use leverage trading.

For paring down risks, the 1% rule is the best method. For example, if your account has $1000, then you can imperil no more than 10%.

Demo trading account:start forex trading
A demo trading account allows you to learn the ropes. With its simulated trading environment, the demo trading account permits the virtual trading that comes in handy later on. Success in demo trading can be interpreted as a sort of assurance that you will do better, and with insight, in live trading.

On the other hand, we cannot deny that the same beneficial effects are also obtained, albeit with sharper results, with a tiny deposit in a live trading account. With the latter, you are nagged by a constant concern that you do not lose actual money. Again, this reinforces what you learn and retain in your long-term memory.

Education: start forex trading
PrimeFin and InvestBy, between them, have such a huge collection of educational resources that beginners and advanced traders will also find the inspiration helpful.

InvestBy has the following on offer:

Trading articles;
Earnings reports season;
Assets hub;
Trade ideas;
Economic calendar;
Trading courses.
PrimeFin has a similar collection under similar headings.

Modest beginnings: start forex trading
Considering that you are starting from A, you ought not to be too harsh on yourself. It is good to have a clear outline of your trading strategies, trading style, and trading plan. Your trading goal will be the light at the end of the learning tunnel. However, you are only just entering waters which, as a rule, run rather deep. Familiarise yourself with your chosen calling.

Take up small trades at first. Then, jot down your daily progress in a Trading Journal. This will help you analyse your own learning.

The right mindset for trading: start forex trading psychology
Those who have a nervous nature are going to have a hard time trying to prove their mettle. Trading requires a combination of patience and alertness. You have to make split-second decisions and golf onto your investment until the time for another profit is ripe. Then there’s the tug of greed and fear, ranged against prudence.

Mindful awareness practiced in the market gives you mindful trading. That’s just being aware of your own mind’s reaction to changing scenarios. You have to assess your own thoughts continually. One day this becomes a blessed habit. Then you know when to surrender to rational fear and when to keep irrational fear in check.

Get a feel for your preferred currency pairs
Per your trading personality, you will find some currency pairs and the conditions that come attached to such things are just your type. Find your currency pairs. Familiarise yourself with the relevant countries’ fundamental analyses. You will find plenty of material to keep you interested and busy.

start forex trading! If you are sufficiently motivated, PrimeFin or InvestBy will give you a credible launch pad with the right trading account for you. Customer support staff at either of the two leading brokers would welcome queries from you. You can expect assistance. There is no such thing as a silly question, so ask away! Gradually you can work your way up the trading developmental ladder.

Bookkeeping Risks and Benefits of Outsourced Services

Having the inbuilt teams is quite losing the charm today considering the time and costs it might take up. And majorly after the existence of remote staffing solutions, professional outsourced teams are being hired by various companies and businesses across the world.

Earlier, these services were popularly only used by the bigger organisations, however with changing times it has become a widely used concept for the new business owners as well.

Despite being popular, having an outsourced team can have its own advantages and disadvantages, both. From having the benefits of significant cost savings, and time efficiency outsourcing might have some risks too. Have a look to know more:

Cost Effective

Having an inbuilt bookkeeping team can be costly. To look after their training, HR, benefits, etc can be quite expensive. Outsourced team of expert professionals saves such costs big time.

Having a team of professionals working that doesn’t need to be trained much or be aligned with companies’ policies makes it a right solution.

Saves Time
Finding the talent, hiring them, giving the right training, etc needs a lot of time and energy. Having outsourced teams working for you, saves businesses from spending extra hours on long processes thus making it time-efficient.

Expert Services
Outsourcing allows the possibilities of hiring the expert level of professionals at affordable prices. Outsourced teams need to upskill themselves endlessly to match up the market trends. And right because of that, the businesses get to work with such professionals that give them an edge.

Training the in-house team to such expertise constantly, can be quite a difficult task to attain hence making outsourcing the right choice.

Reduced Control
While inbuilt teams can be controlled entirely for their timings, hours, work efficiency, etc. outsourced teams might not be easy to reach at least in the initial setup time hence making it the control lesser.

However, having clear communication and building brilliant professional relationships can help you take the appropriate control.

Hidden Costs
A lot of times it might just happen that if the scope of work for the outsourced team is not clear there might be some additional costs for various services, hence shaking up the business’s budgets.

It’s important to have a very clear and detailed scope of work right before the beginning to avoid such circumstances.

While in-house teams offer a certain time period of stay, outsourced teams might not have such stability hence causing an imbalance if and when they decide to call it quits.

For this, it’s very important to have a medium- or long-term contract set with the outsourced team. Hence researching and hiring the right team that stick to what they say they will offer is necessary.

While outsourcing bookkeeping services as its own advantages and disadvantages, it cannot be denied that in this fast-changing world, it’s a blessing for small businesses today. With a predefined scope of work and clear communication setup, outsourcing is definitely beneficial and the progressive way ahead!

Bonds: What Are They?

Bonds are financial instruments representing a credit: the holder of a bond acquires the right to receive from the issuer one, or a series, of cash flows distributed over time.

In this sense, the difference between shares and bonds is clear: a share represents a right to participate in the life of a company, both by voting and by sharing in profits, while a bond is an instrument that day one defines, in terms of cash flows, what the holder is entitled to and what the debtor is obliged to, but does not give the holder any other rights.

Among the Bodies, the Treasury and the other State agencies stand out, in addition to the supranational bodies while among the private ones the commercial companies stand out. Bonds can be listed on the stock exchange, but most of the trading is concentrated with wholesalers, or market makers, or even primary dealers: their business is to guarantee the liquidity of the bonds, providing investors with continuity a price and a minimum negotiable quantity.

We can characterize bonds in various ways: Based on the type of issuer: public or private Based on the type of remuneration offered to the subscriber: which can be determined based on a fixed percentage of the nominal value (fixed coupon bonds), or it can be variable and therefore indexed to an external parameter (variable coupon bonds) ;

or it can be implicit in the discounted price that is applied at the time of issue (zero-coupon bonds) Based on the issuing currency based on any ancillary guarantees offered to the subscriber (bonds guaranteed for example by mortgages) Based on the options guaranteed to the subscriber or issuer (convertible bonds and callable bonds).

Investing in bonds requires an evaluation of the yield offered in issue (evaluation which will differ according to the characteristics of the bond itself that we have listed above), of the current price of the bond (which is not always identical to the issue price, and to which the coupon and all other forms of remuneration must then be related) and also the risks associated with the obligation.

These risks can be divided into three major categories, which are The issuer’s solvency risk, also called default risk The risk that arises from fluctuations in market yields The risk of the currency of denomination We will return to these three risks, and the other characteristics of bonds, in the next guides.

Also on the fact that the bond market is a loan market, and in this sense, it is closely linked to the interbank liquidity market and more generally to the money market.